The role of a sexual health promotion leaflet for 15–18 year olds in catalysing conversations: A constructivist grounded theory

Published:February 17, 2015DOI:


      Following the summer holidays of 2011, twelve girls returned to school pregnant in one high school in Auckland New Zealand (NZ). A health promotion leaflet that folded into a small square containing a condom and was dubbed the ‘teabag’ was distributed to 15–18 year olds prior to the summer holiday of 2012, in order to increase their sexual health knowledge. This paper reports on the evaluation of the teabag from the students’ perspective. During the first term of 2013, seventeen students from two high schools who had received the teabag were interviewed. Five were male and twelve female. Most (16) were of Pacific Island or Māori (indigenous New Zealanders) descent. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, coded and categorised concurrently, in accordance with grounded theory methods. Theoretical sampling was employed and students who had perceptions of the teabag, that were consistent with evolving constructions from data, were invited by school nurses to be interviewed by the researchers. Interviews were coded line by line by two researchers and these codes collapsed into seven focussed codes. Further analysis resulted in the codes being subsumed into three main categories. These categories revealed that the teabag was, helpful, appropriate and became a talking point. The grounded theory and basic social process the researchers constructed from data were that the teabag catalysed conversations about sexual health. The teabag was an acceptable and appropriate sexual health promotion tool to disseminate information about sexual health.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Collegian
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Birks M.
        • Chapman Y.
        • Francis K.
        Memoing in qualitative research: Probing data and processes.
        Journal of Research in Nursing. 2008; 13: 68-75
        • Birks M.
        • Mills J.
        Grounded theory. A practical guide.
        Sage Publications Ltd., London2011
        • Birks M.
        • Mills J.
        • Francis K.
        • Chapman Y.
        A thousand words paint a picture: The use of storyline in grounded theory research.
        Journal of Research in Nursing. 2009; 14: 405-417
        • Braeken D.
        • Rondinelli I.
        Sexual and reproductive health needs of young people: matching needs with systems.
        International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2012; 119: S60-S63
        • Bryant A.
        • Charmaz K.
        Grounded theory in historical perspective: An epistemological account.
        in: Bryant A. Charmaz K. The Sage handbook of grounded theory. Sage Publications Ltd., London2007
        • Charmaz K.
        Constructing grounded theory.
        Sage, London2006
        • Coleman T.M.
        • Kearns R.A.
        • Collins D.C.
        ‘Anywhere you can talk about how you feel is better’: Young people's experiences of sexual health messages.
        New Zealand Geographer. 2010; 66: 61-73
        • Collins D.
        • Coleman T.
        Social geographies of education: Looking within, and beyond, school boundaries.
        Geography Compass. 2008; 2: 281-299
        • Corbin J.
        • Strauss A.
        Basics of qualitative research.
        3rd ed. Sage Publications Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA2008
        • Glaser B.
        Theoretical sensitivity.
        The Sociology Press, Mill Valley, CA1978
        • Glaser B.
        • Strauss A.
        The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research.
        Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick1967
        • Gunnarsson M.S.
        • Sundvall P.D.
        • Gunnarsson R.
        In primary health care, never prescribe antibiotics to patients suspected of having an uncomplicated sore throat caused by group A beta-haemolytic streptococci without first confirming the presence of this bacterium.
        Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2012; : 1-7
        • Hoare K.
        • Mills J.
        • Francis K.
        Sifting, sorting and saturating data in a grounded theory study of information use by practice nurses: A worked example.
        International Journal of Nursing Practice. 2012; 18: 582-588
        • Kilkelly U.
        • Kilpatrick R.
        • Lundy L.
        • Moore L.
        • Scraton P.
        • Davey C.
        • et al.
        Children's rights in Northern Ireland.
        Northern Ireland Commissioner for Children and Young People, Belfast2004
        • Kljakovic M.
        • Crampton P.
        Sore throat management in New Zealand general practice.
        New Zealand Medical Journal. 2005; 118: U1609
        • Laurant M.G.H.
        • Hermens R.P.M.G.
        • Braspenning J.C.C.
        • Akkermans R.P.
        • Sibbald B.
        • Grol R.P.T.M.
        An overview of patients’ preference for, and satisfaction with, care provided by general practitioners and nurse practitioners.
        Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2008; 17: 2690-2698
        • Leahy D.
        • Harrison L.
        Health and physical education and the production of the ‘at risk self’.
        Body knowledge and control: Studies in the sociology of physical education and health. Routledge, London2004: 130-139
        • Lundy L.
        ‘Voice’is not enough: Conceptualising Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child.
        British Educational Research Journal. 2007; 33: 927-942
        • McIsaac W.J.
        • Kellner J.D.
        • Aufricht P.
        • Vanjaka A.
        • Low D.E.
        Empirical validation of guidelines for the management of pharyngitis in children and adults.
        JAMA. 2004; 291: 1587-1595
        • NICE
        Respiratory tract infections—antibiotic prescribing.
        NICE, 2008 (Retrieved from
        • Perry R.C.W.
        • Kayekjian K.C.
        • Braun R.A.
        • Cantu M.
        • Sheoran B.
        • Chung P.J.
        Adolescents’ perspectives on the use of a text messaging service for preventive sexual health promotion.
        Journal of Adolescent Health. 2012; 51: 220-225
        • Phillips K.P.
        • Martinez A.
        Sexual and reproductive health education: Contrasting teachers’, health partners’ and former students’ perspectives.
        Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Sante Publique. 2010; 101: 374-379
        • Reichertz R.
        Abduction: The logic of grounded theory.
        in: Bryant A. Charmaz K. The Sage handbook of grounded theory. Sage Publications Ltd., London2007
        • Sandelowski M.
        • Voils C.I.
        • Barroso J.
        Defining and designing mixed research synthesis studies.
        Research in the Schools: A Nationally Refereed Journal Sponsored by the Mid-South Educational Research Association and the University of Alabama. 2006; 13: 29
        • Schnack T.H.
        • Zdravkovic S.
        • Myrup C.
        • Westergaard T.
        • Wohlfahrt J.
        • Melbye M.
        Familial aggregation of cryptorchidism—a nationwide cohort study.
        American Journal of Epidemiology. 2008; 167: 1453-1457
        • Strauss A.
        • Corbin J.
        Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques.
        2nd ed. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA1998
        • UNICEF
        A league table of teenage births in rich nations.
        Innocenti Research Centre, Florence, Italy2001
        • UNICEF
        Child well-being in rich countries. A comparative overview. Innocenti report card 11.
        UNICEF Office of Research, Florence2013
        • Urquhart C.
        The evolving nature of grounded theory method: The case of the information systems discipline.
        in: Bryant A. Charmaz K. The Sage handbook of grounded theory. Sage publications Ltd., London2007: 339-360
        • Wiener C.
        Making teams work in conducting grounded theory.
        in: Bryant A. Charmaz K. The Sage handbook of grounded theory. Sage Publications Ltd., London2007: 293-310